Habitat: Africa (Ghana, Sierra Leone, Zaire, Namibia), Australia, India, Brazil, Russia-Siberia
Color: colorless, black, red, yellow, blue, brown, green
Basic information: Diamond is an metastable allotrope of carbon. It crystallizes in two polymorphic modifications: cubic and hexagonal.
The cubic modification are well developed crystals of octahedral habit. They are often rounded as consequence of melting during crystallization of magma. It is pyrogenic mineral that crystallizes in the great depths at high temperature and pressure in igneous rocks, when sudden hypothermia of eruptive material expossed to extreme pressures.
Hexagonal modification is rare and occurs in microscopic quantities when a meteorite hits the earth. It is often synthesized artificially.
A diamond can be chemically pure or contain impurities and iron, chromium, silicon and so on.
No connection with other elements.
It is extremely resistant. It is the hardest mineral and last on the Moh’s scale of hardness, 10th.
Perfect cleavage, conchoidal fracture. Transparent and usually colorless. Because of impurities it can be painted.
Paint streak is unknown, adamantine luster. It has a very strong characteristic luminescence, especially if it is illuminated by sunlight.
Other information: The hardest mineral in nature and has the highest melting point (about 4000 °C).
For thousands of years diamonds were taken from secondary sites in the river detritus mostly India and Brazil.
In South Africa, around 1870 were discovered kimberlites, igneous rock, which carry diamonds. They are called kimberlite, named after the best-known primary site of the city of Kimberley in South Africa.
Kimberlite containing diamonds is usually in the form of a tubular or elliptical cross-section circular.
These pipes at greater depths are becoming narrower.
Because of its hardness is used as a tool for cutting, grinding, drilling and polishing.
40% of industrial diamonds are obtained synthetically.
It is a precious gemstone. For jewelry is processed in the form of diamonds and rosettes, but only the rare specimen that have sufficient quality.
The unit measure for the size of the precious stone is carat – 0.2 grams.
The American Institute of GIA (Gemological Institute of America) made a system for categorization of polished diamonds by which determine the quality and the value of the stone.
They called it the 4C: Clarity, Color, Carat, and Cut (purity, color, weight and cut).
Synthetically produced diamonds used for jewelry are economically unprofitable.
Interesting facts: The first records of diamonds originate from India, 500 years. BC
By the 15th century, only members of the royal family, nobles and priests wore it, and later, to the 19th century. exclusively male.
One Hindu testimony told about famous diamond Koh-i-noor. “He who possessed Kohi-i-Noor, and they shall inherit the world, but will know all its misfortunes. Only God or a woman can wear it with impunity.”
After the severe torture of Afghan prince Sha Shudga gave it to the colonial authorities, and today is the Koh-i-Noor precious stones of the British Crown. Weight is 108.93 ct.
Diamond Cullian was wighting 3.106 ct when extracted from the coal mine in Pretoria.
From it is cuted diamond Star of Africa – 530.20 carats. It is part of the British Crown Jewels.
The alternative (no scientific evidence): The diamond is a symbol of power, wealth and beauty, synonymous with eternal love and happiness and therefore a popular choice for engagement rings. It is considered the most powerful amulet, whose power is most intense when gifted. According to the Roman writer Pliny the Elder (23-79 in) diamond is a universal talisman that makes all poison harmless, prevent disease and eliminate madness.